Mathematics is the abstract study of topics such as quantity (numbers), structure, space, and change. There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope and definition of mathematics.
Mathematics are important to astronatus and were used occasionally in Gravity.
Role in Gravity
Use by Kowalski
Matt Kowalski does some quick calculations to discover that the debris, moving at 50,000 miles per hour, will be circling back around the Earth in 90 minutes.
He likely used algebra here.
Use by Stone
Dr. Ryan Stone, while drifting towards the Tiangong station and using a Fire Extinguisher as a makeshift thruster, is unable to get her trajectory correct. She puts the extinguisher in between her legs and uses some quick angle measures to calculate 180 degrees to the station and blast in a straight line.
She used geometry here.