Mathematics was the abstract study of topics such as quantity (Numbers), structure, space and change. There was a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope and definition of Mathematics.
Mathematics are important to astronauts and are used occasionally in Gravity.
Role in Gravity
Use by Kowalski
Matt Kowalski did some quick calculations to discover that the debris, moving at 50,000 miles per hour would be circling back around the Earth in 90 minutes.
He likely used algebra here.
Use by Stone
Dr. Ryan Stone while drifting toward the Tiangong Station and using a Fire Extinguisher as a makeshift thruster was unable to get her trajectory correct. She put the extinguisher in between her legs and used some quick angle measures to calculate 180 degrees to the station and blast in a straight line.
She used geometry here.